146 HISTORY OF PERSIA CHAP. and to the south of Lake Baikal. They spent their lives, like other nomads, in breeding cattle and horses and in raiding, and owed allegiance to the dynasty of northern China, which, albeit derived from similar stock, regarded these wild tribesmen with contempt. That they stood very low in the scale of civilization is shown by the words of Ibn-ul-Athir, one of D'Ohsson's chief authorities : "As for their religion, they worship the sun when it arises, and regard nothing as unlawful, for they eat all beasts, even dogs, pigs, and the like." In the main Carpini and Rubruquis,1 whose missions will be referred to later on, corroborate this testimony to their evil traits, but give credit for splendid discipline, bravery, and endurance : the Mongols' archery and horse- manship, too, were superb. Their arrogance after their conquests, like that of the Arabs, was unbounded. We read in Russian history that the princes of the country were bound to attend the Mongol Khans whenever ordered, and among other humiliations were forced to lick up any drops which fell from the Khan's cup as he drank ! Their filthiness was abominable, washing being unknown, and it is related of Chengiz that he would not allow the word " dirty " to be used. When travelling in Ladakh some twenty-five years ago, I was informed that a rare sun-bath on the roof for the children was the only form of cleansing the body practised there. In Central Asia and Persia, where the Mongols are all Moslems, they are still a dirty race, but the evil is mitigated by the strictness of the rules of Islam on the subject of ablution. The true Mongols have almond-shaped eyes; they are beardless and generally short in stature, but a virile race, and, though clumsy-looking on foot, are born riders. At the same time, in the struggle for wealth they rarely suc- ceed at the present day against the more astute Persians, and in Khprasan, at any rate, they occupy much the same position as the Italians and Eastern Europeans in America. Yhsugay^ the Father of Chengiz Khan.—The ancestors of Chengiz Khan are lost in the mists of legend, but 1 Carftni and Ritbruquis, edited -by Dr. Raymond Beazley; and The Journey of Friar William ofRubntck, edited by W. W. Rockhill (both for ,the Hakluyt Society).